La entrevista motivacional como herramienta para el fomento de cambios en el estilo de vida de personas con enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles sergio. such as motivational interviewing (Gantiva & Flórez, in press; Lizarraga & Ayarra, ; . Entrevista motivacional en consumidores excesivos de alcohol: . Free Online Library: Eficacia de la entrevista motivacional para promover la caracteristicas denominada entrevista motivacional (EM) (Lizarraga & Ayarra.

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Attention is often contaminated by the presence of cognitive distortions, biases, and heuristics which notoriously alter the objectivity of representations about the event cf.

Dual Parallel Process in Crisis Situations: Motivational Foundation

If self-efficacy fails, the person will be demoralized and it is highly unlikely she would be engaged in action, despite considering it an action able to transform the current situation. Simplicity is a property referring to the required conditions for the implementation of the solution, and refers to the intentions of implementation that, as pointed out by Gollwitzerneed to be plain or simple in order to be potent, regardless of the objective situational ambiguity.

Novelty, predictability, and temporal incertitude. The dual extended parallel process model, through which Witte provides an explanatory framework about what occurs when fear is taken as a determinant variable for the adoption of behaviors of avoidance of threats that become real unless such a behavior, suggested by way of a message, occurs.

Emotional coping, by way of the process of pain control, is essential in CS s given that, frequently, generated harms constitute irreversible losses, in the face of which any instrumental attempt of change is of little help.

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In this respect, there are numerous antecedents in some traditional areas of psychological research such as stress and motivation, particularly in those fields dealing with the application of motivational theories to the prevention of disease and the promotion of health. Both of these processes are necessary in the course of coping with a CS as they lead to necessary results for the attainment of personal adaptation in the post-crisis.

Psychological Review92 The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology48, If the event continues in time, coping is what determines an evolution towards exhaustion or adaptation.

Strong effects of simple plans. Fear control is conceptualized as a course of defensive actions that is initiated when the severity of harm has a minimum value from which a defensive motivation is produced. Self-efficacy is the substantial motivational complement of response efficacy, as it is the expectation with the ability to empower the person towards the performance of an action she judges will be able to transform, in this case, a CS.

A memoir of living and dying. In the above example, a student who endures a critical situation of the affective sort e. Such an evolution occurs in response to changes in the initial appraisals by way of a process of permanent reappraisal that is originated in the adaptive or maladaptive consequences resulting from coping attempts successively made by the person, which is why the evolution constitutes a variable process of coping stages and not a rigid and invariable sequence of emotion stages, which is not systematic either in individuals experiencing a CS.


Journal of Affective Disorders61 Conditioned responses are often of a negative emotional kind and involve instrumental responses of avoidance and escape. This methodological approach is adopted by way of the conceptualization of brief motivational interviewing in crisis situations BMI in CS as an essentially cognitive procedure, which requires the adoption of a formulation system orienting the methodology of assessment and treatment with a foundation in the dynamics of real events occurring to the person suffering a CS ; in such dynamics, a determinant priority of cognitive events over emotional and motor events is assumed.

These are ideas or conceptual schemata a person uses to interpret reality. At an extreme at enrevista emotional pain absence of relief and lack of clarity regarding the possibilities to cope with harm are predominant, a CS can lead the person along a path of extreme autonomic arousal where decisions can deliberately assume a path of self-destruction, further leading in both cases to an emergency situation within the CSor lizarrag a more general way, the person’s situation can negatively evolve assuming characteristics proper of an anxiety disorder or an affective disorder Barlow, The paper concludes with a summary of the three basic sources taken from the psychological literature to inform the design of the DPP-CS: During this mktivacional, the person makes primary and secondary appraisals influencing her emotional motifacional, which depends more on the type of appraisals than lixarraga the duration of anticipation.

Cognitive Appraisal during the Crisis Situation Understood as Severe Stress A CS has all of the characteristics of a state of severe stress, although not every stress state can be considered a crisis. In any CS the probability that the available information will generate incertitude in the person increases; in such a case, the role of situational ambiguity is mediated by subjective interpretations, with which the function of personal beliefs becomes more significant in the determination of the course that coping will take.

The highest levels of active involvement, leading the person to commit to and initiate the implementation of positive actions, can be expected in those cases on which high expectations entrevisfa response efficacy and self-efficacy exist; on the contrary, the lowest levels of activity, with a predominant role of passive resignation and apathy, can be expected when there are low efficacy and self-efficacy expectations Bandura, Lazarus and Folkman’s cognitive approach conceptualizes stress as an interaction between external stimuli and the person’s interpretation of them, which partially explains why reactions to one stimulus can vary a lot.

An issue to which there is seemingly enrrevista final answer is that related to the temporal relations between efficacy expectations and self-efficacy expectations as factors determining whether the person would get involved in a particular behavior.

Psychological Review2 An integrated expectancy model. Suffering, on the contrary, constitutes an intensification of pain by way of cognitive appraisals magnifying loss and its consequences, highlighting the unfair characteristics of the crisis-triggering event, and generating attitudes of self-compassion leading even to transform the emotion into a tool for the attainment of secondary benefits. Science, Journal of Psychology91 More precisely, DPP-CS is an applied extension of Kim Witte’s dual extended parallel process model, which is the specific theoretical model underlying it.

This requires pinpointing what these events are, as general ideas about the critical event do not necessarily express the specific conditions of that event that are acting to bring about the emotional response. This concept has been used in the psychological literature particularly to refer to the parallel action of emotional and instrumental coping processes in a harmful situation, which determine the simultaneous presence of a pain-control process and a harm-control process.


Commonsense thinking, artificial intelligence, and the future of the human mind. These are not, however, the only two dual processes parallelly occurring in a CS ; from other viewpoints, other simultaneous processes coexist as well which, together with the tradition of the concept in the literature, contribute to the justification of the name assigned to the proposed conceptual model.

As can be anticipated, people tend to be more active and exert more control initiatives in situations in which they consider the outcomes to be determined by their own actions, than when they perceive them as lizadraga in a fatalistic manner e.

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This theoretical source has been adopted by way of the conceptualization of crisis as a severe stress state in which a deep alteration of motivations occurs, not only in the natural space proper to the crisis event, but in all the spaces motivacioanl the total vital field to which a person has a high degree of commitment.

Valence or valuation Lang, ; Lewin,the importance a person attributes to a determined element or outcome. Cognitive appraisal is proposed in this model as the factor anteceding coping, which is a response process demanding active effort by the person to attain stress management.

Lack of clarity regarding the causes often leads the person to make distorted attributions of self-blaming or blaming to others, with the resulting deepening of feelings of sadness and anger, and the alteration of social relationships. The exercise of control.

In a favorable case, there is a entrevosta in the emotional response and an increase in the probability of successful coping; in the contrary case, the so-called incubation of anxiety Chorot,can be produced, a process that predisposes even more to the deepening of the crisis.

The strategy of formulation by levels suggested by Riso in his proposal about the theoretical and methodological foundations of cognitive therapy, which orients therapeutic action by way of a triple configuration organized in the manner of levels, each of which incorporates some cognitive product or process. The fact of being exposed to an aversive event, generally denoting important loss, occurring in some vital area of great personal value, naturally urges the person to act to escape harm and avoid its worsening Bradley, ; the course of action an individual adopts will depend on the margin of harm reversibility in many occasions, actually irreversibleon the responses repertory a person has available, and on the entrevjsta relation between motviacional responses and the CSparticularly the ability the person attributes to the responses to modify the situation, and the self-attributed ability to get involved in the performance of the response.